strategy could be useful component of comprehensive smoking cessation plan,
21, 2019 — Smokers who are trying
to quit may not always have to reach for a piece of nicotine gum to stave
off a craving. Deliberately inhaling a pleasant aroma may be enough to reduce
the urge to light up, at least temporarily, and could be used as part of an
effective smoking cessation strategy, according to research published by the
American Psychological Association.
disappointing relapse rates, there have been few new approaches to smoking
cessation in general and to craving relief in particular,” said lead author
Michael Sayette, PhD, of the University of Pittsburgh. “Using pleasant odors to
disrupt smoking routines would offer a distinct and novel method for reducing
cravings, and our results to this end are promising.”
research was published in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology®.
smoking rates have fallen over the past 50 years, approximately 40 million
Americans still smoke, according the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. Most adult smokers want to quit and at least half report trying in
the past year, yet half of those who try relapse within two weeks.
“Even with nicotine
replacement, relapse is common. New interventions are urgently needed to
help the millions who wish to quit but are unable,” said Sayette.
The researchers recruited 232 smokers, ages 18 to 55, who were not trying to quit at the time and were not using any other nicotine delivery system, such as gum or vaping. They were asked not to smoke for eight hours prior to the experiment and were required to bring a pack of their preferred cigarettes and a lighter with them.
Upon arrival, the people first smelled and rated a number of different odors generally considered to be pleasant (e.g., chocolate, apple, peppermint, lemon or vanilla) as well as one unpleasant chemical odor, tobacco from the participant’s preferred brand of cigarettes and one blank (no odor). They were then asked to light a cigarette and hold it in their hands, but not smoke it. After 10 seconds, the participants verbally rated their urge to smoke on a scale of 1 to 100 before extinguishing the cigarette and putting it in an ashtray.
participants then opened a container that held either the scent they had rated
most pleasurable, the scent of tobacco or no scent and sniffed it once before
again rating their urge to smoke. They continued to sniff the container they
were given for the next five minutes, rating their urge to smoke every 60 seconds.
craving score just after lighting the cigarette was 82.13. Regardless of what
odor they smelled, all participants experienced a decreased urge to smoke after
sniffing the container, but the average craving scores for those who smelled pleasant
odors dropped significantly more (19.3 points) than those who smelled tobacco
(11.7 points) or received the blank (11.2 points).
researchers were not surprised by the findings, as they confirmed and extended
results from a much smaller, exploratory study they had previously conducted,
according to Sayette.
replicating prior findings is not something I take for granted, and extending
the research by showing that we can maintain the effect for as long as five
minutes suggests it might offer enough time for a smoker to decide to avoid or
leave their high-risk situation,” he said.
believes that part of the reduction seen in all three conditions may be due to
smokers extinguishing the cigarette and removing temptation. As for why
pleasant aromas achieved a greater reduction in cravings, he thinks they may
work by distracting smokers from thoughts of their craving to memories linked
to these olfactory cues (e.g., peppermint reminded some of the smokers of
childhood Christmas holidays spent at a grandparent’s home), but more research
would need to be done to confirm his hypothesis.
research suggests that the use of pleasant odors shows promise for controlling
nicotine cravings in individuals who are trying to quit smoking,” said Sayette,
who noted that additional research needs to be done to see if this
strategy could prove useful alone or in combination with other approaches to
The American Psychological Association, in Washington, D.C., is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States. APA’s membership includes nearly 118,400 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students.