be more likely than women to die after being diagnosed with breast cancer,
particularly during the first 5
years after diagnosis, a new study suggests.
study, the 5-year overall survival rate after a
diagnosis of breast cancer was 77.6% for
men, compared with 86.4% for women, researchers reported in
JAMA Oncology on September 19.
add to previous research showing differences in death rates between men and
women with breast cancer while also providing information about some of
the factors that may contribute to the disparity between the sexes.
identified by the authors was the lack of adequate treatment for many men with
breast cancer, a phenomenon known as undertreatment. Another was the later
diagnosis of the disease in men than in women.
in clinical characteristics, such as the types and stage of breast
tumors, age at diagnosis, and cancer treatment between men and women
with breast cancer played a major role, accounting for 63% of mortality disparity, the researchers reported. However,
after all those factors were accounted for, male patients still had 19% higher chance of dying than female patients within 5 years of diagnosis.
“We were not able to investigate other
known or suspected contributors for the disparity in death rates in this study,
such as compliance to cancer treatment, tumor genetics, and
lifestyle factors, such as obesity, smoking, and alcohol use,” said Xiao-Ou
Shu, M.D., Ph.D., of Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, who led the research.
“If we want to learn more about why
outcomes of male breast cancer differ from those of female breast
cancer, then we need more studies that focus on men with the disease,” Dr. Shu
continued. These studies should include multiple outcomes, such as cancer
remission, recurrence, and death rates from breast cancer and all causes, she
on Men with Breast Cancer
Fewer than 1% of breast cancers diagnosed each year occur in men, noted
Alexandra Zimmer, M.D., of the Women’s Malignancies Branch in NCI’s Center for
Cancer Research, who was not involved in the study.
“So far, we have been mostly lumping
men with breast cancer and women with breast cancer in clinical trials and
evaluations,” Dr. Zimmer said.
As a result,
the treatment of male breast cancer has largely been based on
studies involving women with the disease, she continued.
“The results of this retrospective
study suggest that men with breast cancer deserve dedicated studies that will
help us to better understand the biology of the disease in males,” Dr. Zimmer
Death Rates, Later-Stage Cancers
the analysis, Dr. Shu and her colleagues used information from the National
Cancer Database to compare death rates for 16,025 men and 1,800,708
women who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 2004 and 2014.
Cancer Database, which is sponsored by the American College of
Surgeons and the American Cancer Society, includes more than 70% of newly diagnosed cancer cases in the United States.
study, men had higher death rates than women across all stages of breast
cancer, even after the researchers adjusted for differences in patients’
clinical characteristics, such as the type and stage of disease, treatments
received, age, race/ethnicity, and access to care.
the study found that a larger percentage of men than women were diagnosed with
advanced-stage disease, which the researchers said could be attributed to a
lack of awareness of and screening for breast cancer in men.
percentage of men than women in the study had stage IV breast cancer at
diagnosis (5.8% versus 3.8%), for example.
having more aggressive disease overall, male patients were more likely than
women to be undertreated, the researchers found. For instance, men were less
likely than women to receive radiation therapy, including those who had
Clinical characteristics and undertreatment explained only about two-thirds of the difference in mortality. “Hopefully, future studies will be able to identify additional factors,” said Dr. Shu.
Unanswered Questions about male breast cancer
As with all
retrospective studies, Dr. Zimmer noted, the analysis had limitations. For
example, the researchers lacked detailed information about treatment, such as
which types of chemotherapy had been used.
the National Cancer Database does not include information about the cause of
death or the recurrence or progression of cancer.
“This study should be used mainly as a
way to generate hypotheses for further studies, rather than to establish any
firm conclusions at this point,” said Dr. Zimmer.
One of the messages of the study for men who are experiencing symptoms of breast cancer, she continued, “is to look for help and to consider treatment as soon as possible.”
After a Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Men May Be More Likely to Die than Women was originally published by the National Cancer Institute (USA).
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