According to World health organisation (WHO), It is transmitted through the respiratory tract from infected to susceptible individuals. Hib also causes potentially severe inflammatory infections of the face, mouth, blood, epiglottis, joints, heart, bones, peritoneum, and trachea. Although this problem occurs worldwide the burden of Hib disease was considerably higher in resource-poor countries, prior to the introduction of the vaccine into their national immunization programmes.
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the six related types of bacterium.
The Hib bacterium is commonly present in the nose and throat. Bacteria are transmitted from person to person in droplets through sneezing, coughing.
Infected children may carry Hib bacteria without showing any signs or symptoms of illness, but they can still infect others. The risk of disease is highest for children between six months and two years of age.
Public health tool to preventing the majority of serious Hib disease
According to WHO, Vaccines are the only public health tool capable of preventing the majority of serious Hib disease. Hib vaccines are safe and efficacious even when administered in early infancy. In view of their demonstrated safety and efficacy, WHO recommends that Hib conjugate vaccines to be included in all routine infant immunization programmes.
Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals
As of March 2012, the World Health Organization estimated that globally 199,000 (136,000 – 281,000) HIV negative child deaths under five years of age occurred during 2008 due to Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) and 476,000 (333,000 – 529,000) HIV negative child deaths under five years of age occurred during 2008 due to pneumococcal (Streptococcus pneumoniae) infections. Estimation of cases and deaths by pathogen is summarized below. 2% of all cause-child mortality under five were due to Hib infections. 5% of all cause-child mortality under five were due to pneumococcal infections.