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World Hepatitis day 2021: Hepatitis Can’t Wait

World Hepatitis Day is observed each year on 28 July to raise awareness of viral hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver that causes severe liver disease and hepatocellular cancer.

World Hepatitis Day 2021 theme

This year’s World Hepatitis Day theme is “Hepatitis Can’t Wait”. With a person dying every 30 seconds from a hepatitis-related illness – even in the current COVID-19 crisis – we can’t wait to act on viral hepatitis. There are five main strains of the hepatitis virus – A, B, C, D and E. Together, hepatitis B and C are the most common which result in 1.1 million deaths and 3 million new infections per year.

Key facts Hepatitis A

According to a fact sheet of WHO :

Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver that can cause mild to severe illness.

The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food and water or through direct contact with an infectious person.

Almost everyone recovers fully from hepatitis A with lifelong immunity. However, a very small proportion of people infected with hepatitis A could die from fulminant hepatitis.

The risk of hepatitis A infection is associated with a lack of safe water and poor sanitation and hygiene (such as contaminated and dirty hands).

A safe and effective vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis A.

Key facts Hepatitis B

According to a fact sheet of WHO :

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic diseases.

The virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through contact with blood or other body fluids during sex with an infected partner, unsafe injections or exposure to sharp instruments.

Hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccines that are safe, available and effective.

WHO estimates that 296 million people were living with chronic hepatitis B infection in 2019, with 1.5 million new infections each year.

In 2019, hepatitis B resulted in an estimated 820 000 deaths, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer).

Key facts Hepatitis C

According to a fact sheet of WHO :

Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV): the virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness.

Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver cancer.

The hepatitis C virus is a bloodborne virus: the most common modes of infection are through exposure to small quantities of blood. This may happen through injection drug use, unsafe injection practices, unsafe health care, transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products, and sexual practices that lead to exposure to blood.

Globally, an estimated 58 million people have chronic hepatitis C virus infection, with about 1.5 million new infections occurring per year.

WHO estimated that in 2019, approximately 290 000 people died from hepatitis C, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer).

Antiviral medicines can cure more than 95% of persons with hepatitis C infection, but access to diagnosis and treatment is low.

There is currently no effective vaccine against hepatitis C.

Key facts Hepatitis D

According to a fact sheet of WHO :

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a virus that requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication. HDV infection occurs only simultaneously or as a super-infection with HBV.

The virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through contact with blood or other body fluids during sex with an infected partner, unsafe injections or exposure to sharp instruments.

Vertical transmission from mother to child is rare.

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) affects globally nearly 5% of people who have a chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV).

Several geographical hotspots of the high prevalence of HDV infection exist, including Mongolia, the Republic of Moldova, and countries in Western and Middle Africa.

Populations that are more likely to have HBV and HDV co-infection include indigenous populations, recipients of haemodialysis and people who inject drugs.

Worldwide, the number of HDV infections has decreased since the 1980s, due mainly to a successful global HBV vaccination programme.

The combination of HDV and HBV infection is considered the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis due to more rapid progression towards liver-related death and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Currently, treatment success rates are generally low.

Hepatitis D infection can be prevented by hepatitis B immunization, but treatment success rates are low.

Key facts Hepatitis E

According to a fact sheet of WHO :

Hepatitis E is an inflammation of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV).

Every year there are an estimated 20 million HEV infections worldwide, leading to an estimated 3.3 million symptomatic cases of hepatitis E.

WHO estimates that hepatitis E caused approximately 44 000 deaths in 2015 (accounting for 3.3% of the mortality due to viral hepatitis).

The virus is transmitted via the faecal-oral route, principally via contaminated water.

Hepatitis E is found worldwide, but the disease is most common in East and South Asia.

A vaccine to prevent hepatitis E virus infection has been developed and is licensed in China, but is not yet available elsewhere.

हमें गूगल न्यूज पर फॉलो करें. ट्विटर पर फॉलो करें. वाट्सएप पर संदेश पाएं. हस्तक्षेप की आर्थिक मदद करें

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